Yom Kippur in the NJWB Recordsby Rachel Rudman, M.A., Reference Services Research Intern, Center for Jewish History
This post is part of the Holiday History Series. To view all posts in the series, click here.
Above image: Text on back of photograph reads, “Yom Kippur services at Great Lakes, Ill. I think 1942 or 1943. Rabbi Julius Mark was chaplain. Services held in drill hall, now Catholic chapel.” c/o American Jewish Historical Society.
I wrote my last post on sermons and bulletins specific to Rosh Hashanah. Now I will explore a few examples from Yom Kippur announcements. Like the previous examples, these again highlight events most concerning to American Jewish communities as well as the ways in which Jewish leaders connected such events to the Days of Awe. The materials come from records of the National Jewish Welfare Board (NJWB), housed in the American Jewish Historical Society collections here at the Center for Jewish History.
The first example is an excerpt from a sermon delivered on Yom Kippur 1943 titled “The Jew and the Draft.” Doctor Rabbi A. Herbert Fedder of Laurelton Jewish Center begins his speech with a joke popular at the time: “What goes faster than a P-40? A Jew passing a draft board.” His sermon is devoted to debunking the myth that Jews avoid the draft in larger proportions than the rest of the American population, and arming Jews with facts that they can use to answer such a charge. After explaining common reasons Jews have been associated with avoiding the draft, Rabbi Fedder gives numerical evidence of Jewish involvement in the army at a proportion greater than that of other Americans. He calls for Jews to read, analyze, memorize and repeat the great contribution of the Jewish community to the American army. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 10. Click here for the finding aid.)
Another example can be seen in a letter from Rabbi Manning Bleich addressed to the worshippers of Ohev Sholom Synagogue in Lewistown, Pennsylvania. Before the penitential period of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur in 1945, Rabbi Bleich wrote that while arms have been laid down, the community should approach the Days of Awe with no less meaningful prayer than in previous years. True penitence can help return the world to peace and alleviate suffering of Jews everywhere. He dedicated his Slichot service that year (a service of prayers for forgiveness said before Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur) to Lieutenant Louis Krentzman, the first member of his congregation to fall “for G-d and Country.” He called for the pews to be filled in order to honor this brave soldier’s memory. By dedicating the Slichot service to a fallen member of his congregation, Rabbi Bleich both incorporated the realities of WWII into his High Holiday agenda and made the Days of Awe more relevant to his community. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 10. Click here for the finding aid.)A final example comes from a statement by Frank Weil, the President of the National Jewish Welfare Board in September 1945. Echoing the message of Rabbi Bleich, Weil expresses the feeling of hope for the Jewish community that accompanies the downfall of the tyrannical regimes in Europe. He commits the NJWB to relief and rehabilitation of displaced survivors of the war and reconstruction of Jewish communities abroad. He calls for prayer on these High Holidays—for Jews in America and for soldiers in Europe and the Far East—to be focused on the historic task of world peace, put forth by the prophets and proclaimed as the goal of mankind. In his message, Weil reveals the contemporary interest of the American Jewish community in supporting the rebuilding and revitalization of the Jewish people in Europe. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 11. Click here for the finding aid.)Check back for children’s quizzes on the High Holidays, and a look into historic Jewish communities through Sukkot bulletins and sermons!

Yom Kippur in the NJWB Records
by Rachel Rudman, M.A., Reference Services Research Intern, Center for Jewish History

This post is part of the Holiday History Series. To view all posts in the series, click here.

Above image: Text on back of photograph reads, “Yom Kippur services at Great Lakes, Ill. I think 1942 or 1943. Rabbi Julius Mark was chaplain. Services held in drill hall, now Catholic chapel.” c/o American Jewish Historical Society.

I wrote my last post on sermons and bulletins specific to Rosh Hashanah. Now I will explore a few examples from Yom Kippur announcements. Like the previous examples, these again highlight events most concerning to American Jewish communities as well as the ways in which Jewish leaders connected such events to the Days of Awe. The materials come from records of the National Jewish Welfare Board (NJWB), housed in the American Jewish Historical Society collections here at the Center for Jewish History.

The first example is an excerpt from a sermon delivered on Yom Kippur 1943 titled “The Jew and the Draft.” Doctor Rabbi A. Herbert Fedder of Laurelton Jewish Center begins his speech with a joke popular at the time: “What goes faster than a P-40? A Jew passing a draft board.” His sermon is devoted to debunking the myth that Jews avoid the draft in larger proportions than the rest of the American population, and arming Jews with facts that they can use to answer such a charge. After explaining common reasons Jews have been associated with avoiding the draft, Rabbi Fedder gives numerical evidence of Jewish involvement in the army at a proportion greater than that of other Americans. He calls for Jews to read, analyze, memorize and repeat the great contribution of the Jewish community to the American army. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 10. Click here for the finding aid.)

Another example can be seen in a letter from Rabbi Manning Bleich addressed to the worshippers of Ohev Sholom Synagogue in Lewistown, Pennsylvania. Before the penitential period of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur in 1945, Rabbi Bleich wrote that while arms have been laid down, the community should approach the Days of Awe with no less meaningful prayer than in previous years. True penitence can help return the world to peace and alleviate suffering of Jews everywhere. He dedicated his Slichot service that year (a service of prayers for forgiveness said before Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur) to Lieutenant Louis Krentzman, the first member of his congregation to fall “for G-d and Country.” He called for the pews to be filled in order to honor this brave soldier’s memory. By dedicating the Slichot service to a fallen member of his congregation, Rabbi Bleich both incorporated the realities of WWII into his High Holiday agenda and made the Days of Awe more relevant to his community. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 10. Click here for the finding aid.)

A final example comes from a statement by Frank Weil, the President of the National Jewish Welfare Board in September 1945. Echoing the message of Rabbi Bleich, Weil expresses the feeling of hope for the Jewish community that accompanies the downfall of the tyrannical regimes in Europe. He commits the NJWB to relief and rehabilitation of displaced survivors of the war and reconstruction of Jewish communities abroad. He calls for prayer on these High Holidays—for Jews in America and for soldiers in Europe and the Far East—to be focused on the historic task of world peace, put forth by the prophets and proclaimed as the goal of mankind. In his message, Weil reveals the contemporary interest of the American Jewish community in supporting the rebuilding and revitalization of the Jewish people in Europe. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 11. Click here for the finding aid.)

Check back for children’s quizzes on the High Holidays, and a look into historic Jewish communities through Sukkot bulletins and sermons!

A Time to Reflectby Rachel Rudman, M.A., Reference Services Research Intern, Center for Jewish History
This post is part of the Holiday History Series. To view all posts in the series, click here.
Above image: Text on back of photograph: “Chaplain Joseph H. Freedman Hq, USAFIME, is shown blowing the ‘Shofar’ during the annual religious service in observance of Rosh-Hashana. Photo by Sgt. E.M. Henderson, S.C., Signal Corps Photo Division, USAFIME.” Circa 1942. c/o American Jewish Historical Society. 
Since the high holidays draw the highest number of Jews to synagogue during the Jewish year, it is an apt time for congregational leaders to speak and write on topics of interest or concern to their communities. Sermons and bulletins on Rosh Hashanah, for example, typically inspire reflection on the past year and describe hopes for the year ahead.
As I noted in my previous post, records from the National Jewish Welfare Board (NJWB)—housed in the American Jewish Historical Society collections here at the Center—allow us to see which world events were most relevant to Jews at specific time periods, as well as the thematic ways in which Jewish community leaders connected these events to the Jewish New Year.
The first example comes from a bulletin called “The Synagogue Light” by Rabbi Joseph Hager. On Rosh Hashanah 1941, in the midst of the Holocaust, he writes that as Jewish communities blow the ram’s horn, they should reflect on the innumerable losses in blood and treasure of the Jewish people in many parts of the world. He explains that over the past year Jews have been persecuted, their existence as a people has been threatened, and they have been made to experience the suffering of the dark ages. He expresses hope that on this Rosh Hashanah, prayer will hasten the coming of well-being for humanity, and that the new year will be one of deliverance and salvation for the Jewish people. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 9. Click here for the finding aid.)
Another example comes in the form of a New Year message from Dr. Louis Finkelstein, President of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in 1945. He begins by saying that as the enemies of democracy in Europe and Asia have been defeated, and men begin to return to their regular lives, it is a fitting on Rosh Hashanah to reflect upon the events of the past six years. He writes that even while much is being done to repair the world after the physical destruction of WWII, that the most important goal moving forward is to lay the foundation of lasting peace among nations. He connects this call for cooperation among mankind to the Rosh Hashanah themes of renewed heart and spirit. He puts forth the hope that as Jews help to rebuild the world and repopulate the Jewish people, that they focus on the establishment of Israel as a shelter for those in need and the education of children about the importance of a life devoted to Jewish values. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 10. Click here for the finding aid.)
A final example comes from the President’s Message in the Mizrachi Women’s Cultural Guide on Rosh Hashanah 1948. She says that this is the first Jewish New Year since the creation of Israel and thanks God for the great events of the past year. In asking for peace and security of the new country, the President notes the importance of determined and loyal Zionists in the essential building up of the land, including its schools, agriculture and army. She hopes, on Rosh Hashanah, for the continued privilege of contributing to the growth of the Jewish people and the new state of Israel. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 11. Click here for the finding aid.)
Best wishes for a sweet new year, full of meaningful reflection on the past and hope for the future. Check back for a look into past Jewish communities through the lens of Yom Kippur sermons and bulletins.

A Time to Reflect
by Rachel Rudman, M.A., Reference Services Research Intern, Center for Jewish History

This post is part of the Holiday History Series. To view all posts in the series, click here.

Above image: Text on back of photograph: “Chaplain Joseph H. Freedman Hq, USAFIME, is shown blowing the ‘Shofar’ during the annual religious service in observance of Rosh-Hashana. Photo by Sgt. E.M. Henderson, S.C., Signal Corps Photo Division, USAFIME.” Circa 1942. c/o American Jewish Historical Society. 

Since the high holidays draw the highest number of Jews to synagogue during the Jewish year, it is an apt time for congregational leaders to speak and write on topics of interest or concern to their communities. Sermons and bulletins on Rosh Hashanah, for example, typically inspire reflection on the past year and describe hopes for the year ahead.

As I noted in my previous post, records from the National Jewish Welfare Board (NJWB)—housed in the American Jewish Historical Society collections here at the Center—allow us to see which world events were most relevant to Jews at specific time periods, as well as the thematic ways in which Jewish community leaders connected these events to the Jewish New Year.

The first example comes from a bulletin called “The Synagogue Light” by Rabbi Joseph Hager. On Rosh Hashanah 1941, in the midst of the Holocaust, he writes that as Jewish communities blow the ram’s horn, they should reflect on the innumerable losses in blood and treasure of the Jewish people in many parts of the world. He explains that over the past year Jews have been persecuted, their existence as a people has been threatened, and they have been made to experience the suffering of the dark ages. He expresses hope that on this Rosh Hashanah, prayer will hasten the coming of well-being for humanity, and that the new year will be one of deliverance and salvation for the Jewish people. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 9. Click here for the finding aid.)

Another example comes in the form of a New Year message from Dr. Louis Finkelstein, President of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in 1945. He begins by saying that as the enemies of democracy in Europe and Asia have been defeated, and men begin to return to their regular lives, it is a fitting on Rosh Hashanah to reflect upon the events of the past six years. He writes that even while much is being done to repair the world after the physical destruction of WWII, that the most important goal moving forward is to lay the foundation of lasting peace among nations. He connects this call for cooperation among mankind to the Rosh Hashanah themes of renewed heart and spirit. He puts forth the hope that as Jews help to rebuild the world and repopulate the Jewish people, that they focus on the establishment of Israel as a shelter for those in need and the education of children about the importance of a life devoted to Jewish values. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 10. Click here for the finding aid.)

A final example comes from the President’s Message in the Mizrachi Women’s Cultural Guide on Rosh Hashanah 1948. She says that this is the first Jewish New Year since the creation of Israel and thanks God for the great events of the past year. In asking for peace and security of the new country, the President notes the importance of determined and loyal Zionists in the essential building up of the land, including its schools, agriculture and army. She hopes, on Rosh Hashanah, for the continued privilege of contributing to the growth of the Jewish people and the new state of Israel. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 11. Click here for the finding aid.)

Best wishes for a sweet new year, full of meaningful reflection on the past and hope for the future. Check back for a look into past Jewish communities through the lens of Yom Kippur sermons and bulletins.

Above image: The text on the back of the photograph reads, "Chaplain Nathan Landman, Air Force Jewish Chaplain for France, Spain, and Libya, examines the traditional Shofar (ram’s horn) and other High Holy Day religious equipment prior to taking off from Evreux-Fauville Air Base to Tripoli, Libya on the first leg of a 3,000 mile circuit in which he conducted eight services at five bases before returning to Evreux for Yom Kippur." from the collections of the American Jewish Historical Society.
Holiday History: Bulletins and Sermons from the NJWBby Rachel Rudman, M.A., Reference Services Research Intern, Center for Jewish History
Over the next couple of weeks, I will post a series of articles that explore bulletins and sermons on Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur and Sukkot from the records of the National Jewish Welfare Board (NJWB), housed in the American Jewish Historical Society collections at the Center for Jewish History. These announcements reflect the desire of community leaders to place the Jewish holidays in the context of issues concerning American Jewry at the time. They show which events were most relevant to Jewish communities at specific time periods, as well as American Jewry’s reaction to national and global struggles. 
For example, in the middle of WWII, the NJWB published an announcement titled, “G.I. High Holy Days, 1943.” This document describes the ways in which the organization enabled the observance of the holiest days of the Jewish year by American Jewish soldiers and sailors worldwide. Large supplies of religious materials—such as prayer shawls and books, shofars and skull caps—were made available at military establishments, and Jewish chaplains led thousands of high holiday services across the globe. This document reveals the concern that those in the military would not be able to observe the high holidays, as well as the action taken by the NJWB to ensure holiday observance by Jewish servicemen during WWII. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 8. Click here for the finding aid.)        
Another example comes from a NJWB publication called, “The Jewish Holidays,” by Mordecai Soltes. Published in 1931 and revised in 1937 and 1943, the first three editions refer to Palestine and give short histories of Zionism, the Balfour Declaration and various Jewish organizations in the Yishuv (Jewish community in Palestine). The fourth edition, however, published in 1951, changes all wording from “Palestine” to “Israel” and shifts focus, reflecting new priorities in the young state. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 10. Click here for the finding aid.)
For a glance into historical events through the eyes of Jewish communities during their holiest times, check back for posts specific to Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur and Sukkot. Also look for a post or two featuring children’s trivia questions about the holidays, and see how many you can answer!

Above image: The text on the back of the photograph reads, "Chaplain Nathan Landman, Air Force Jewish Chaplain for France, Spain, and Libya, examines the traditional Shofar (ram’s horn) and other High Holy Day religious equipment prior to taking off from Evreux-Fauville Air Base to Tripoli, Libya on the first leg of a 3,000 mile circuit in which he conducted eight services at five bases before returning to Evreux for Yom Kippur." from the collections of the American Jewish Historical Society.

Holiday History: Bulletins and Sermons from the NJWB
by Rachel Rudman, M.A., Reference Services Research Intern, Center for Jewish History

Over the next couple of weeks, I will post a series of articles that explore bulletins and sermons on Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur and Sukkot from the records of the National Jewish Welfare Board (NJWB), housed in the American Jewish Historical Society collections at the Center for Jewish History. These announcements reflect the desire of community leaders to place the Jewish holidays in the context of issues concerning American Jewry at the time. They show which events were most relevant to Jewish communities at specific time periods, as well as American Jewry’s reaction to national and global struggles.

For example, in the middle of WWII, the NJWB published an announcement titled, “G.I. High Holy Days, 1943.” This document describes the ways in which the organization enabled the observance of the holiest days of the Jewish year by American Jewish soldiers and sailors worldwide. Large supplies of religious materials—such as prayer shawls and books, shofars and skull caps—were made available at military establishments, and Jewish chaplains led thousands of high holiday services across the globe. This document reveals the concern that those in the military would not be able to observe the high holidays, as well as the action taken by the NJWB to ensure holiday observance by Jewish servicemen during WWII. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 8. Click here for the finding aid.)        

Another example comes from a NJWB publication called, “The Jewish Holidays,” by Mordecai Soltes. Published in 1931 and revised in 1937 and 1943, the first three editions refer to Palestine and give short histories of Zionism, the Balfour Declaration and various Jewish organizations in the Yishuv (Jewish community in Palestine). The fourth edition, however, published in 1951, changes all wording from “Palestine” to “Israel” and shifts focus, reflecting new priorities in the young state. (AJHS I-337, subgroup 1, series C, subseries 4, box 168, Folder 10. Click here for the finding aid.)

For a glance into historical events through the eyes of Jewish communities during their holiest times, check back for posts specific to Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur and Sukkot. Also look for a post or two featuring children’s trivia questions about the holidays, and see how many you can answer!

Shana Tova!

The start of this year marks a new beginning for us here at the Center for a Jewish History. We’re opening the new David Berg Rare Book Room to showcase treasures from the collections of our five partners, launching a program season packed with everything from concerts to symposia, and embarking on an exploration of the Jewish community of 18th-century Metz, France with a conference and exhibition (co-sponsorsed by YIVO) that we would love for you to attend.

You can start planning your visit to the Center by clicking here.

For more historic greeting cards like the ones above, visit the Center for Jewish History’s Flickr photostream. You can also click here to connect with the Center for Jewish History on Facebook.

All the best in 5774!

Rosh Hashanah Resources
by David P. Rosenberg, M.P.A., Senior Reference Librarian - Collections, Center for Jewish History

In honor of the New Year I examined ten resources available at the Center (for the ten days of repentance) that reflect on the experience of the High Holidays in the military.

Memoirs

1)    Reflections on World War II: Chaplain Jacob Kraft’s Letters to Leah reprints Kraft’s letters to his congregants (in Congregation Beth Shalom in Wilmington Delaware) who he left, with their full support, for the military chaplaincy. The change between letters from during the war and those from after victory is dramatic and touching; they give a real taste of Rabbi Kraft’s sentiments at the time.

The 1944 letter speaks about military cooperation for the holiday, and the help of the Jewish Welfare Board. It quotes a statement from a GI who recently returned from overseas: “I never knew that there could be so much joy in walking along the street with my wife or playing with my boy. They mean far more to me now than when I was in the States.”

Rabbi Kraft concludes the touching but restrained letter with a poignant prayer: “There is good reason to believe that the year 5705 will usher in the year of Victory. May God grant that it be the victory of the unshackled human spirit over brute strength and brute evil. God bless you and all your dear ones with health and happiness. May the New Year bring freedom to all mankind and abiding peace on earth.”

His letter of Rosh Hashanah 5706 starts with the following: “These Rosh Hashanah greetings are being written immediately following V[ictory over]J[apan] day, and the traditional prayer is on all lips “Shehechiyanu, V’keemanu” (We thank Thee, O Lord, that we have lived to witness this day). We rejoice not only because of victory over a treacherous and unscrupulous foe, but also because this victory has saved countless human lives and put an end to the wasteful expenditure of natural and human resources.”

The concluding paragraph has marked differences from the year before: “May I extend to you the blessings of this Rosh Hashanah which is filled with such hopeful promise. May this promise be fulfilled. May God grant you and your dear loved ones strength, peace and abiding happiness.”

2)    The wartime memoirs of Rabbi Harold H. Gordon, Chaplain on Wings recounts a “serious altercation” he had with a commanding officer regarding getting soldiers leave for holiday services. It resulted in a “special investigating team” addressing the matter. He recounts that “Fortunately, we knew that there was more than one way of skinning a cat. We Jewish chaplains learned very early in our chaplaincy service that it was often more important to cultivate the friendship of a first sergeant or even a ‘buck’ sergeant than that of the C.O., because it was the sergeant who was responsible for carrying out the C.O.’s directives…”

3)    An American Rabbi in Korea, A Chaplain’s Journey in the Forgotten War recounts how Rabbi Rosen was transferred to Japan for surgery and was released in time for the holidays. “He conducted services in Kobe at the Jewish synagogue built by the Sassoon Family before World War II.” (see The Sassoon dynasty and The Sassoons, two books held by the American Sephardi Federation, for more information on the family of “merchants, philanthropists, and men of letters, originally from Baghdad” [Encyclopaedia Judaica 2nd Ed.])

Resources

4)    A Chapel Songbook, Sing and be Joyful from the Chaplain, U.S. Marine Corps, compiled by Captain Samuel Sobel, CHN, USN has music and words for “Ere space exists” and “Into the tomb of ages past”—two songs indicated in the table of contents as specific to the New Year.

5)    A Program and Resource Guide for Jewish lay leaders ministering to Jewish personnel in the Armed forces in the absence of a Jewish chaplain, outlines the holiday succinctly in one page. One section struck me: “If extreme necessity precludes the holding of full services, cut the services short, but on no account may you postpone the observance. Try to arrange for at least one festive meal, with candles and Kiddush to celebrate the day.” This work was printed by Armed Forces Chaplains Board with cooperation of the Commission on Jewish chaplaincy, National Jewish Welfare Board.

Archival collections

6)    The National Jewish Welfare Board was founded in “1917 to provide support for soldiers in times of war” (catalog entry). The collection, I-337, spans more than 1500 linear feet and has information on the holiday in various locations, including a subseries dedicated to holiday files. (Subgroup I: Governance, Series C: Central Records Center, Subseries 4: Holiday Files, 1905-1972 (bulk 1935-1960)) Finding aid here.

7)   There is also a collection of chaplaincy records: National Jewish Welfare Board military chaplaincy records, I-249. Finding aid here.

Reflections of the National Jewish Welfare Board efforts

8)    Despite the great work done by the National Jewish Welfare Board, supporting thousands of soldiers, some of their work was also ridiculed. Chaplain Livazer reflects on acquiring prayer books for the High Holidays in The Rabbi’s Blessing: “…and within a few days received a package of fifty Adler prayerbooks with English translation and two thousand machzorim from the Jewish Welfare Board, which were considered a joke even by the rabbis who had compiled them, so devoid were they of all content…”  (over twenty Machzorim from the partner collections have digitized and are available online)

9)    Rabbis in uniform has twenty pages dedicated to the high holiday services. In one section, Supply Chaplain Maurice Kleinberg recalls how he arranged for transport of Kosher food from the National Jewish Welfare Board. “I could see no reason why we could not have such delicacies as lox and cream cheese or salami. First, however, we had to get a special permit that would have the shipments of the Jewish Welfare Board a higher priority…Quartermaster notified us that we would have to be on hand for the unloading of our boxes; to prevent pilferage…we had to organize a 24-hour guard duty roster…men were happy to serve when they found out what the precious cargo contained…”

Nisson E. Shulman remembers how they had a shofar that would not blow; they received the shofar from the National Jewish Welfare Board. First “Sam, the tailor” suggested they pickle it in vinegar as he claimed they did in Europe when a shofar would not blow. This remedy did not work. Next he took the Shofar to the Naval Exchange garage:

“What’s your problem, Chaplain?”

“Well I’ll tell you. I have a stubborn Shofar and I would appreciate your blowing it out with your air pump.”

The Navy rises to any reasonable emergency. But this Shofar was unreasonable. Even after the air pump treatment, it would not blow. But the garage attendant recommended that I try the fire station since they had a much more powerful air compressor. Service time was nearing and I was open to all suggestions.

The first attempt with the fire station’s air gun blew the Shofar across the room. We picked it up tenderly and saw that, thank God, it was not damaged.

“Give me that Scotch Horn again, Rabbi,” urged the Fire Chief. We held it down together. We forced the air through. We shot a sweetening agent into it; we gave it a dose of perfume. I lifted it to my lips and, lo and behold, there came forth the blast of the Shofar. But the overpowering vinegar aroma was still very much there…

More current reflections on holiday observance

Just as Rabbis petitioned and became Chaplains in the Civil war (see this blog entry) and the Jewish Welfare Board helped support Jewish soldiers during the Great War, Rabbi Kraft enlisted to help support Jewish soldiers during WWII, and Rabbi Rosen served in Korea, there continue to be Jews in the military and clergy to serve them. People doing historical research frequently reference The Forward on microfilm, the YIVO archives also has Forward Association records, RG 685 as well as related collections such as Abraham Cahan’s collection RG 1139. Cahan was the Founder of the Jewish Daily Forward and its editor-in-chief from 1901 until his death in 1951.

10)    This article from the Forward (electronically available in the Center’s reading room, as are over 200 electronic resources) from last year preserves the more current holiday celebrations.

We here at the Center wish you a sweet new year and all the best in 5773. To conduct your own holiday-inspired search of the collections, click here.